development

Structural organization of the spongy mesophyll

Many plant leaves have two layers of photosynthetic tissue: the palisade and spongy meso- phyll. Whereas palisade mesophyll consists of tightly packed columnar cells, the structure of spongy mesophyll is not well characterized and often treated as a …

Reintegrating biology through the nexus of energy, information, and matter

Information, energy, and matter are fundamental properties of all levels of biological organization, and life emerges from the continuous flux of matter, energy, and information. This perspective piece defines and explains each of the three pillars …

Mesophyll Biomechanics

Characterizing the development, structure, and function of the mesophyll in leaves and flowers